Lessons in Automation (and Quality)

[Author: Peter Moon]

The following article is based on the talk Dan Acton and I gave at the Industry Dev Ops Day in Johannesburg on the 22nd of June 2016.

Background

We wanted to understand how automation will enable as to deliver high quality products at high velocity by building a real working product.

We wanted to live the motto of automate everything, build a system to build the product rather than just the product itself. This is sometimes called the two product principle.

The product we built delivered services to internal customers. The technologies deployed included application services, OS services and network services.

The system for building the product, constructed and tested the resulting product based on a set of configuration parameters.

Along the journey of trying live this motto we learnt some lessons.

Lesson 1: It is Hard Work

If you go done with road you will discover it is hard. There are a few reasons for this.

First, you need to be precise. You need to know the rules and not just the answer. The approach of trying different answers until it looks like it works, doesn’t work when you automate. You just can’t build a repeatable process without understanding the system in which you operate. You need to know the rules.

Second, you need to understand the technical domain (be that the OS, the middleware, the application or software defined networks). Then there is the automation tooling (for example Chef for infrastructure automation, or Cucumber for test automation) that you to master. Finally, you need software engineering skills to think about the automation system as a software solution and not just a set of scripts. You need to maintain the system for building the product as you would the product itself.

Third, you need to remember that the automation is in service of product you will deliver to your customers. That is why we did not achieve our goal of automating absolutely everything. Technology constraints meant the automation effort exceed the benefit in the context of the customer product we were delivering. You need to pragmatic and remember the end goal is to deliver value for your customers.

Lesson 2: It is Never Only Once

Not everybody will believe that automation is worth the effort.

“Why are you automating, we will only build it once?” That is something you might to asked when going down the path of automating everything. But is it not true.

Name a system that never changes, name a system that does not need to be verified and you have a system that will only be built once. However, you will still encounter unexpected change. How about a data centre migration?

Once you gone down this journey, once you have factory in place, the cost of building the next copy will fall to almost zero. That changes your ability to respond to new demands in ways you never imagined.

A reduction in the cost of creating a capability due to automation results in an increase in demand for that capability.

Lesson 3: It Drives Velocity

Automation will drive your velocity, however, it won’t help you win the spirit race. Over a longer distance it will assist in building up velocity and maintaining it.

Automation is hard, you need to overcome a hurdle before you can start delivering value. You are forced to move some complexity left (earlier in the project). Once you overcome the hurdle, tasks start to disappear and you start to pick up speed. Take care to ensure you are still heading in the direction of delivering a product of value to your customers. Remember velocity is a vector (with speed and direction).

Knowledge and patterns are transferred into the automation code. You no longer need to manually apply these patterns in each case. This frees up time to work on other value adding tasks. For that you need software engineering skills.

The solution is also more internally consistent. It works the same way in every case. This frees up time and mental energy.

Automation is enables agility, the ability to response to external changes and/or unexpected events. For example, we had to integrate a product into a solution at short notice. Automation and virtual infrastructure allowed us to create a test platform to prove the proposed product would integrate into the solution in a matter of days. Unfortunately, the proposed product proved to be unsuitable due to conflicting requirements between it and another component. After verifying with the vendors involved that the product would not work, it only took a small code change before we had integrated an alternative product into a test platform and within a day we had proven the alternative product works. Automation enabled high velocity response even in the face of failure.

Lesson 4: It Drives Quality

The effort you put into building the system that builds the product shows up in the quality of the finished product.

Quality is enabled by code being repeatedly verified. Automation enables this. This goes beyond just automated testing. The behaviour of any system is impacted by its environment. Only some of these interactions are explicitly modelled, others are not. Repetition with a varying environment allows more interactions to surface. Fixing those that impacts behaviour drives in quality. When doing it once manually, you only need the stars to align once, when repeating it automatically many times, you will find the stars unaligned at least once.

Quality also comes from the freedom to refactor. The freedom to fix the small things, safe in the knowledge that “free” verification is available to verify continued correct function. This “free” verification is not possible without automation.

Consistency also drives quality. Consistency can be enabled by including high level concepts and patterns into the automation code as first class citizens. Driving these concepts into the automation code in a just in time basis requires the freedom to refactor.

With the system we built, the parts that cause the most trouble are those components we could not automate due to time and/or technology constraints.

That is how automation assists in delivering quality products.

Increased Quality and Velocity

Quality and velocity are traditionally seen as quantities you need to trade off. To increase quality we need to go slower, to increase velocity we need to sacrifice quality.

That need not be the case. Automation is one of the tools that allows us to shift the quality versus velocity curve up. Driving up both the quality and the velocity.

By investing in the system that builds the product you can shift the curve up.

That is what the automation journey demonstrated to us. Automation is a tool that can be used to move the curve up, delivering improved quality at higher velocity.